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  ["type"] => string(1) "1"
  ["m_id"] => string(1) "0"
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  ["name"] => string(6) "服务"
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  ["desc"] => string(0) ""
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  ["dir"] => string(7) "service"
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    ["category_template"] => string(0) ""
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        ["meta_title"] => string(131) "商标注册_商标注册流程_商标注册流程及费用_西安商标注册_西安商标注册代理-「源知果」艺源科技"
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        ["meta_description"] => string(182) "「源知果」西安提供代理版权登记,代理商标注册,代理专利申请,代理企业贯标,代理高新技术企业认定的服务;咨询电话:13325455411。"
        ["category_template"] => string(0) ""
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}
				
当前位置: 首页 > 售后 > 艺源智库
【小程序】小程序•小故事(4)——获取用户信息
时间:2018-07-26 11:30:45
文章发布:杜凯
原创作者:胡浩
来源:微信开发者

背景

我们发现大部分小程序都会使用 wx.getUserInfo 接口,来获取用户信息。原本设计这个接口时,我们希望开发者在真正需要用户信息的情况下才去调取这个接口,但很多开发者会直接调用这个接口,导致用户在使用小程序的时候产生困扰,归结起来有几点:

小程序.jpg

  • 开发者在小程序首页直接调用 wx.getUserInfo 进行授权,弹框获取用户信息,会使得一部分用户点击“拒绝”按钮。

  • 在开发者没有处理用户拒绝弹框的情况下,用户必须授权头像昵称等信息才能继续使用小程序,会导致某些用户放弃使用该小程序。

  • 用户没有很好的方式重新授权,尽管我们增加了设置页面,可以让用户选择重新授权,但很多用户并不知道可以这么操作。

此外,我们发现开发者默认将 wx.login  wx.getUserInfo 绑定使用,这个是由于我们一开始的设计缺陷和实例代码导致的(wx.getUserInfo 必须通过 wx.login 在后台生成 session_key后才能调用)。同时,我们收到开发者的反馈,希望用户进入小程序首页便能获取到用户的 unionId,以便识别到用户是否以前关注了同主体公众号或使用过同主体的App 。

为了解决以上问题,针对获取用户信息我们更新了三个能力:

1.使用组件来获取用户信息

2.若用户满足一定条件,则可以wx.login 获取到的code直接换到unionId

3.wx.getUserInfo 不需要依赖 wx.login 就能调用得到数据

获取用户信息组件介绍

 组件变化:

  • open-type 属性增加 getUserInfo :用户点击时候会 bindgetuserinfo 事件。

  • 新增事件 bindgetuserinfo :当 open-type getUserInfo 时,用户点击会触发。可以从事件返回参数的 detail 字段中获取到和 wx.getUserInfo 返回参数相同的数据。

示例:

 Click me

 wx.getUserInfo 不同之处在于:

1.API wx.getUserInfo 只会弹一次框,用户拒绝授权之后,再次调用将不会弹框;

2.组件由于是用户主动触发,不受弹框次数限制,只要用户没有授权,都会再次弹框。

通过获取用户信息的组件,就可以解决用户再次授权的问题。

直接获取unionId

开发者申请 userinfo 授权主要为了获取 unionid,我们鼓励开发者在不骚扰用户的情况下合理获得unionid,而仅在必要时才向用户弹窗申请使用昵称头像。为此,凡使用“获取用户信息组件”获取用户昵称头像的小程序,在满足以下全部条件时,将可以静默获得 unionid

1.在微信开放平台下存在同主体的App、公众号、小程序。

2.用户关注了某个相同主体公众号,或曾经在某个相同主体App、公众号上进行过微信登录授权。


这样可让其他同主体的App、公众号、小程序的开发者快速获得已有用户的数据

不依赖登录的用户信息获取

某些工具类的轻量小程序不需要登录行为,但是也想获取用户信息,那么就可以在 wx.getUserInfo 的时候加一个参数 withCredentials: false 直接获取到用户信息,可以少一次网络请求。

这样可以在不给用户弹窗授权的情况下直接展示用户的信息

合适的实践

1.调用 wx.login 获取 code,然后从微信后端换取到 session_key,用于解密 getUserInfo返回的敏感数据。

2.使用 wx.getSetting 获取用户的授权情况
  1) 如果用户已经授权,直接调用 API wx.getUserInfo 获取用户新的信息;
  2) 用户未授权,在界面中显示一个按钮提示用户登入,当用户点击并授权后就获取到用户的新信息。

3.获取到用户数据后可以进行展示或者发送给自己的后端。


One More Thing

除了获取用户方案介绍之外,再聊一聊很多初次接触微信小程序的开发者所不容易理解的一些概念:

1.关于OpenId和UnionId

OpenId 是一个用户对于一个小程序/公众号的标识,开发者可以通过这个标识识别出用户。

UnionId 是一个用户对于同主体微信小程序/公众号/APP的标识,开发者需要在微信开放平台下绑定相同账号的主体。开发者可通过UnionId,实现多个小程序、公众号、甚至APP 之间的数据互通了。

同一个用户的这两个 ID 对于同一个小程序来说是永久不变的,就算用户删了小程序,下次用户进入小程序,开发者依旧可以通过后台的记录标识出来。

2.关于 getUserInfo 和 login

很多开发者会把 login 和 getUserInfo 捆绑调用当成登录使用,其实 login 已经可以完成登录,getUserInfo 只是获取额外的用户信息。

 login 获取到 code 后,会发送到开发者后端,开发者后端通过接口去微信后端换取到 openid 和sessionKey(现在会将 <code style="margin: 0px 4px 0

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