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“中国天眼”将建扩展阵 为寻找地外生命“做功课”
时间:2020-06-05 10:05:36
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:互联网

中国天眼

“中国天眼”要迈出探索地外生命的步伐了。

科学家认为,宜居的星球除了应当有水、适宜的温度和大气外,还有一个必要条件——磁场。

作为世界上最大的单口径射电望远镜, 500 米口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)将锁定太阳系外的太空,在距离地球约 100 光年的范围内寻找与地球一样拥有磁场的行星,助力寻找地外生命。近期,中法等国天文学家在《天文学及天体物理》杂志上发表了这一观测计划。

从零到一: 寻找首颗系外“磁行星”

磁场对于生命来说至关重要。

“地球磁场牢牢抓住地球表面的大气,避免其被太阳风吹走,隔绝了绝大多数强烈的宇宙射线,可保护生命不受射线的伤害。”中国科学院国家天文台研究员、FAST 首席科学家李菂在接受科技日报记者采访时表示。

太阳风是从太阳上层大气射出的超声速等离子体带电粒子流,当这种等离子体流到达地球附近时,大部分流体会被地球磁场干扰,绕过地球继续向太阳系外围前进。其余的一小部分则随着地球磁场线进入两极,并与空气碰撞,形成绚丽多彩的极光,而非直接照射到动植物体身上。

那么,地球磁场是如何形成的?

“地球内部的高温导致物质融化,大量电离物质特别是液态的铁金属,随着地球自转长期处于运动之中,使地球形成了一个强度较稳定、具有南北磁极的磁场。”李菂告诉记者,目前关于地球磁场的细节问题也是学界研究的热点之一,如经常出现磁场反转、磁极加速移动等。

在太阳系的八大行星中,除了地球,还有 5 颗拥有行星尺度的磁场,分别是水星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星,这些行星磁场的形成机制与地球大致相同。而对于太阳系外的空间,目前学界尚未真正探测到过拥有磁场的行星,但天文学家们已经发现了一些拥有磁场的褐矮星。褐矮星又被称为“失败的太阳”,因为它们相较于行星来讲太大了,最轻的褐矮星质量也有十几倍的木星大小;而相对于在核内发生氢聚变的恒星来说又很小。2018 年,研究人员发现了一颗质量介于行星和褐矮星之间的天体(SIMP),磁场比木星还要强 200 倍左右。

“这让我们有理由相信,太阳系外也会存在很多有磁场的行星,FAST 将要做的,就是突破这个零。”李菂说。

提升“视力”: 扩展阵助分辨率提升百倍

在星际的巨大尺度中,磁场的探测永远是个很难的问题。

对于太阳系内的行星结构、物理现象、甚至磁场,我们可采用发射探测器等方式直接探测。但系外行星对于空间探测器来说,遥不可及。只能通过地球上或附近的空间望远镜等设备接收信号,测量恒星的位置和速度是否变化来推测其周围是否存在行星;后来进一步发展利用“掩星”或引力透镜的现象进行观测,而上述常规的探测方式皆与行星内部的磁场相关度不高。

近 20 年来,一部分天文学家开始锁定射电信号,以期观测行星的磁场。为何会选在射电波段呢?

“如果行星有磁场,那么在主恒星星风的作用下,便会产生电磁辐射。特别是在射电这一频率跨度很宽的波段。”李菂表示。再者,对于地面的射电望远镜而言,大气层是“透明”的,即宇宙中的射电信号能量低、波长长,穿过大气层时不易散射,能够保留较为完整的信息被地面望远镜这双“眼睛”接收。以木星为代表的大行星辐射就发生在射电波段,这也启发人们在寻找其他同样具有磁场的行星时重点关注射电信号。

“FAST 最大的优势在于接收射电信号的总面积很大,灵敏度高。”在李菂看来,FAST 单位接收面积的性价比也很高。虽然世界上存在综合性能更强的射电望远镜,如某些阵列式望远镜,又如 8 台望远镜构成、观测首张黑洞照片的“事件视界望远镜”等,这些望远镜虽然分辨率更高,也能做很多 FAST 目前无法完成的观测内容,但由于每个阵列单元都要有独立的接收设备和传送、处理信号装置,因此成本将会指数级增长。FAST 造价只有 12 亿人民币,而由 66 个望远镜单元组成的 ALMA 射电望远镜的造价为 10 亿英镑,折合成人民币约 92 亿元。

“FAST 已经将灵敏度发挥到了极致,但由于口径的限制,观测系外行星时的分辨率还达不到理想要求。我们希望能够建设 FAST 扩展阵,将空间分辨率提升 10—100 倍。”李菂透露,目前计划采用 5 米口径的天线和简易接收单元,在现有的“球面”周围铺设成密集网,将原本 300 米有效基线扩大至几十公里。为了节省成本,扩展阵的每个单元不设置数字信号处理装置,而是利用光纤将接收到的电信号直接传输到在 FAST 的总处理器上。如此一来,“天眼”对于弱点源的响应性能将会大幅提升,“视力”进一步提高。

打开新窗: 或改变对地外生命现有认知

FAST 一旦接收到第一颗系外行星的射电信号,将意味着打开系外宜居行星探索的新窗口。

“当这种探测大范围展开后,很有可能会得到一个结论,即表明太阳系之外行星磁场是普遍存在的。”李菂认为,虽然磁场并非地外生命存在的唯一条件,但作为保护生命的重要因素,未来愈发多样、详细的行星磁场的探测将会改变人们对地外生命的现有认知,甚至将为搜索智慧生命和地外文明提供助力。

以目前观测到的数据,银河系之内、太阳系之外存在生命的条件是普遍存在的。“如果近期完全找不到地外生命的影子,反而是不可思议的。”李菂告诉记者,地球上各种极端条件下皆存在着生命,人们在地外也探测到构成生命的C、H、O等必要元素和大量复杂分子。银河系诞生了 100 多亿年。恒星、行星、磁场、水以及足够的时间,这些生命演化的必要因素齐备,为何不会存在地外生命?

很快,FAST 将会迈出这一步,扩展阵也将在3—4 年内建成,助力搜索系外行星的射电信号。

除此之外,FAST 将在 2019 年 9 月结束长达 3 年的测试期,正式投入使用。超过 10 个国家和地区的天文学家的科学团队正在从事 FAST 相关研究。李菂透露,以中国科学院国家天文台为首的科研团队已经制定了两个系统化的巡天计划:FAST 多科学目标同时巡天计划(CRAFTS)和银道面及仙女座星系巡天计划(GAS)。目前这两个计划已经确立了相关模式,进行了大量的技术测试,预期今年年底前正式展开,将成为 FAST 系统科学产出的主要依据,预期发现上千颗脉冲星、几十万个新的气体星系、超过 100 亿个像素点的新一代原子氢气天图。

“FAST 多个观测项目,特别是两个系统巡天计划,将力争在脉冲星黑洞系统、引力波源、基本物理常数、星系演化、生命的太空起源等方向催生重大突破。”李菂说。

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