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浅论俏江南与资本之间的风花雪月:养孩子与养猪的区别在哪?
时间:2016-01-30 09:17:07
文章发布:
原创作者:未知
来源:互联网

俏江南与投资人鼎晖,近期刷频了朋友圈,引发了很多的讨论。

就创业者高频问到的三个问题,谈谈我们的看法。

问:近期很多媒体以“净身出户”、“融资悲剧”与“资本之殇”为标题,评论俏江南创始人张兰的退出。你怎么看?

答:有的创业者把企业当小孩养,不离不弃。

有的创业者把企业当猪养,养肥了卖掉。

有的创业者一开始把企业当猪养,后来养着养着养出了感情,把企业当小孩养。

有的创业者一开始把企业当小孩养,后来主动或被动地把企业当猪养卖掉……其中经历的挣扎与选择,如人饮水,「冷暖自知」。

问:有人说,资本是奶妈。也有人说,资本是吸血鬼。通过俏江南事件,你如何看,创业者与资本之间的关系?

答:就如何处理和资本的关系,俏江南事件给很多创业者科普了一次。

首先,创业者们可以换位思考,去「理解」资本,理解资本的游戏规则。

姑娘们谈个对象,还得去了解她的Mr. Right。创业者拿钱,也得对打交道的风投有基本的理解。对人家有需求,猴急地滚床单。滚完床单啪啪后,说自己被骗了,那是耍流氓。

创业者打交道的风投,通常是长这样的:

(1) 风投(主要讨论机构投资人)的主营业务分两大块:上游向它的投资人(LP)融资,下游投资被投项目;

(2) 风投的钱,不是天上掉馅饼掉下来的,也不是打砸抢来的。和创业企业一样,风投也需要向它上游的投资人(LP)融资,融完资才有钱对下游投资。风投融资的难度,甚至不亚于很多创业企业,说出来也都是泪;

(3) 风投从LP那募集来的钱,是有使用期限。基金存续期(通常5-10年)满,风投就得把投出去的项目清盘,向它背后的投资人(LP)交代。这也决定了,创业者从风投手里拿到的钱,也是有使用期限的。或者说,风投是有退出需求,不会和创业者白头偕老的。风投后端有退出渠道,前端才敢放开手脚去投项目。风投的退出渠道包括公司IPO、公司并购(包括通过清算优先权与领售权)与公司回购等。此前新财富杂志的苏飞龙详细解读过相关条款;

(4) 风投从LP那募来的钱,是有使用成本的。这也决定了,创业者从风投那拿的钱也是有成本的,而且是高成本。风投不追求旱涝保收,但追求高收益高回报地从创业企业退出。风投有“三高”的特点:上游向出资人(LP)募资成本高,下游被投项目死亡概率高,只投具备高成长基因的企业;

(5) 作为投大钱占小股的小股东,风投通常不参与公司的经营管理,对公司通常也没控制权需求。但是,与很多深受大股东侵害的小股东不一样的是,风投是专业的小股东,风投也要对它背后的投资人(LP)负责,会有一整套保护自己合法权益的措施。这也解释了,为什么风投的投资协议都会比较复杂;

(6) 风投的出资人(LP)与风投的管理人(GP),很多要么赚过大钱,要么见过大钱,都是聪明人,并不是很多人认为的“钱多人傻”。

其次,创业者与风投,主要是「互相成就」的关系。这世界赚钱的公司,要么离人近,要么离钱近,更NB的是既离人近又离钱近(BAT一半基因是产业,一半基因是金融,不是投资公司的投资公司)。人力资本与货币资本结合,还是可以发生很多化学反应,互相放大对方价值的。创业企业发展好,对风投肯定是利好。风投把钱投出去之前,还可以和企业谈谈条件。钱出去之后,基本就把命运交到创业企业手里了。

再次,创业者与风投,也可能「互相伤害」。风投是资本风月场的高手,熟悉资本游戏规则,可以利用专业优势合法地保护自己,损害对方。创业者是企业全职的运营者与经营者,全面掌控企业的人财物,也可以利用现实影响力保护自己,损害对方。但是,对风投而言,资本游戏规则不能替代风投对项目与团队本身的判断,也不能改变投资高风险的前提,不能本末倒置。对创业者而言,不理解游戏规则,不遵守游戏规则,代价会很大。在信息越来越公开透明,弱关系陌生人之间的链接与交易越来越频繁,弱关系陌生人主要靠信用维持关系和交易,信用越来越值钱的年代,风投的不良口碑,创业者的不良信用,双方代价都会很高。

问:你磨磨唧唧这么多,说说俏江南事件对创业者有啥启发借鉴吧?

答:(1)老干妈、华为等公司不通过外部机构融资解决企业发展的资金问题,苹果、谷歌、腾讯等公司借助外部机构融资解决企业发展的资金问题,不是所有企业都需要或都适合外部机构融资;

(2)创业企业的产品与服务可以为客户创造价值,客户愿意买单,这是企业健康靠谱的融资方式,这也是聪明的钱投资的前提;

(3)股权融资,不是创业者单方出演的“独角戏”,创业者以互相成就的心态拿钱,有利于减少与资本的冲突博弈;

(4)要喝牛奶,我们没必要每个人都在家养头奶牛。股权融资是个专业事,专业人干专业事性价比高;

(5)没亲历创业与资本的人,只会扯淡猎奇,冷嘲热讽,不足以评论俏江南与资本。创业者与投资者之间,需要有个专业中立的第三方平台,减少双方的很多误读与误解。

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