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当前位置: 首页 > 新闻 > 业界动态
人民日报:美国加强立法管理互联网的先行者
时间:2012-06-09 10:22:51
文章发布:
原创作者:未知
来源:互联网
      美国是互联网的诞生地,也是早期早开始对互联网进行管理的国家。部分美国人在互联网刚问世时曾一度认为,网络空间的秩序和规则应当靠人们的行为自律和市场这只“看不见的手”来逐步确立,并把政府对互联网的管理看成了“插手”和“控制”。但随着互联网的发展,网络色情、电脑病毒、黑客攻击、知识产权侵犯等一系列问题渐渐露出苗头,大多数美国民众转而认识到,政府这只“看得见的手”必须介入互联网规则的制定,并通过适当的管理来打击违法行为。
立法是美国管理互联网的早期主要手段。除了全国性的法律法规外,各州还针对互联网应用在当地的实际特点颁布了法律法规,并建立符合各州具体情况的互联网管理制度。此外,美国联邦和各州都十分注意把历史上颁布的法律法规与时代接轨。比如,美国上世纪六七十年代颁布的《信息自由法》和《隐私法》,便成为《电子通信隐私法》等许多互联网法律法规的基础。
在许多人对互联网还没有形成概念时,美国便在1977年制定了《联邦计算机系统保护法》。随着互联网在上世纪八九十年代逐渐普及,美国又相继颁布了《联邦禁止利用计算机犯罪法》、《计算机安全法》、《电子通信隐私法》、《全球电子商务政策框架》、《域名注册规则》等一系列与互联网有关的法律法规,涉及到对行业准入、数据保护、网络通信、消费者权益保障等各种网络行为的规则制定,以及对欺诈、诽谤、色情、盗版等网上不法行为的防范与打击。
加强对儿童的保护是美国规范互联网行为的一个重点。早在1998年,美国便通过了《儿童在线隐私保护法案》。该法律严禁任何网站在未经家长同意的情况下获取未成年人的姓名、地址、电话号码等私人信息。为了打击网络色情对儿童的侵害,美国联邦调查局设置了专门的机构,在网上搜寻、识别含有儿童色情内容的信息,一旦发现便会采取具体行动,将制作、发布、浏览、留存这些违法信息的犯罪分子绳之以法。美国司法部还建立了特别部队,专门打击针对未成年人的网络犯罪行为。
进入21世纪以来,美国的互联网管理出现了两个新特点。
一是加大了对网上恐怖主义信息的打击力度,加强了对利用互联网从事与恐怖主义有关活动的监控。“9·11”事件后,美国颁布的《爱国者(微博)法》和《国土安全法》都含有授权政府对互联网进行监控的条文,美国政府或者执法机构可以依法监控所有“危及国家安全”的互联网信息,并采取屏蔽等措施。2010年,美国又通过了《将保护网络作为国家资产法案》,授权美国联邦政府在实施紧急状态的情况下关闭互联网。
据英国媒体报道,美国国土安全部的“分析员”还通过搜索关键词随时掌握社交媒体上的“潜在威胁信息”。26岁的英国人布莱恩和一名朋友今年1月下旬前往美国西海岸的洛杉矶旅游,出发前一个星期,他在社交网站推特上随便发布了一条微博:“这个星期之后,我要前往美国摧毁它。”二人一入境即被逮捕。尽管布莱恩强调自己的本意是在美国“疯玩一场”,但警察还是于次日将二人遣返回英国。
美国互联网管理的第二个新特点,是针对个人的隐私信息有可能经新兴社交网站泄露或被网络公司非法获取的担忧,加快相关立法和行政干预的步伐。今年2月,美国政府要求谷歌(微博)、“脸谱”等互联网公司建立共同的隐私标准,赋予用户更多控制个人网上信息的权利。
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