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当前位置: 首页 > 新闻 > 业界动态
网络时代需要强化“领网主权”意识
时间:2014-03-17 16:31:55
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:光明日报

    【专家视点】

   “领网主权”概念的提出

    “二战”结束以来,民族国家因领土领海领空争夺而爆发的冲突越来越少见,而围绕贸易摩擦和意识形态及文化差异展开的常规战争和“口水战”即舆论斗争却与日俱增。步入全球媒介化时代后,围绕网络信息传播控制权的争夺日趋激烈。网络信息传播控制权在军事领域简称“制网权”,在外交领域和国际舆论较量中,笔者则建议称为“网络主权”或“领网主权”。之所以称为“领网主权”,是因为在全球网络社会,国家主权不仅体现在对领土、领海和领空等现实空间的控制上,也越来越多地体现在对电子网络等虚拟空间的控制上。习近平总书记指出,“网络安全和信息化是事关国家安全和国家发展、事关广大人民群众工作生活的重大战略问题”;“没有网络安全就没有国家安全”。这充分表明对网络建设和网络安全的重视提到了前所未有的高度。

网络时代需要强化“领网主权”意识-艺源科技


国家主权是一个发展的概念,其外延随着国家活动在物理空间和精神空间的扩大与延伸而同步拓展。当前,“文明的冲突”、“软权力”等文化扩张和文化主权构成了国际主权斗争中一个新的重要领域。笔者认为,所谓“领网主权”,主要是指主权国家对互联网基础设施和关键硬件设备的控制权、对互联网软件技术的自主知识产权、在互联网传播领域国家意志和主流意识形态的话语权,以及依法保障公民网络通信自由和政府、组织、个人信息安全的权力。随着互联网技术及其应用在全球范围内的突飞猛进,网络信息传播控制权逐渐成为文化主权和国家“软权力”最为重要的部分,因此,对网络主权或“领网主权”的研究必须引起我们高度重视。而在我们致力于打通“两个舆论场”、在国际互联网大平台上更好地向世界说明中国、以我为主构建国际舆论新格局的过程中,则必须牢固树立网络主权意识,像重视领土领海领空不受侵犯一样,重视网络领域的基础设施安全保障、信息科技自主创新和意识形态中国话语的建构。

“领网主权”意识的国际参照

当今世界,美国凭借其在互联网基础设施、信息科技以及计算机软件开发上的先发优势,出于国家利益的考虑,牢牢控制着“制网权”,对信息后发国家产生了巨大的压制和安全威胁。在网络外交领域,美国政府也有超前的筹划和举措,值得我们高度重视。正如有学者指出的,“自人类进入互联网时代以来,鼓吹‘网络自由’最卖力的是美国,可对网络自由威胁最大的恰恰也是美国”。奥巴马当选总统后,其在互联网领域的一系列动作,更凸显新一届美国政府在网络主权国际争夺上的野心。2011年3月19日,英国《卫报》揭露了美军正在组建“网络水军”的事实。2011年5月16日,白宫协同国务院、司法部、商务部、国土安全部和国防部等公布了题为《网络空间国际战略》的文件。这份文件称美国将通过多边和双边合作确立新的国际行为准则,加强网络防御的能力。据报道,美国有关部门一直就如何针对网络空间制定“震慑”战略进行研讨。该战略的思路与20世纪的“核威慑”战略类似。

目前,国际互联网的13台根服务器全部在美国的掌握之中。为保障网络安全和网络自由,世界各国曾多次要求美国交出根服务器控制权,由联合国等国际机构进行管理,但美国置国际舆论于不顾,拒不交出控制权,牢牢地将国际互联网掌握在自己手中。事实上,现在所有国家的网络安全和网络自由都受到美国的实时威胁,只要美国停止哪个国家的域名解析,哪个国家的互联网就会瘫痪。2009年底到2010年初,谷歌公司以无法接受中国关于互联网管理方面的有关要求和受到黑客攻击为由,宣布放弃在中国(大陆)的搜索业务。随后,美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿在多种场合发表讲话,提出要将“不受限制的互联网访问作为外交政策的首要任务”,并批评中国剥夺了互联网自由。在围绕谷歌退出中国大陆市场事件中,美国国务院的声明也恰恰暴露出他们在互联网“制网权”方面早有筹划和预谋。这确实不能不引起我们的警觉。

强化“领网主权”意识的现实必然

互联网特别是有“自媒体”之称的社交网络的裂变式发展,带来了信息传播方式的变革,改变了我国信息传播格局和人们的信息获取方式,也进一步改变着社会舆论格局。长期以来,我们对互联网的认识未知远大于已知,已有的办法和举措还远不能适应互联网的快速发展,如何加强互联网的建设和管理是我们不可回避的重大课题。这迫切需要我们加快改进网上舆论引导工作,丰富网上健康向上的信息内容供给,加强互联网信息传播安全,切实提升网络国际传播力,确保国家长治久安和人民幸福安康。

当然,维护“领网主权”不仅不妨碍我们坚持对外开放,而且有赖于“文化开放水平”的不断提高。互联网没有国界,网络安全也是全人类的共同话题。我们必须按照党的十八届三中全会决定的要求,积极吸收借鉴国外一切优秀文化成果,包括网络文化成果,引进有利于我国文化发展的人才、技术和管理经验,积极构建适合中国特色和网络时代特点的舆论引导新格局,以改革创新精神开创网上舆论工作新局面。    (夏德元 童兵 作者分别为国家社科基金重大项目“坚持马克思主义新闻观与完善舆论引导格局研究”课题组成员、上海教育音像出版社社长,课题组首席专家、复旦大学教授)

标签: 计算机软件开发 互联网
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