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网络谣言与网络言论自由背道而驰
时间:2014-03-20 16:33:54
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:光明日报

网络谣言是网络空间的视觉污染,也是信息化时代的一大公害。网络谣言在自媒体和移动互联网的背景下愈演愈烈,公众早已不堪其扰,很多人因为网络谣言付出了名誉受损、经济损失等代价。近日,最高人民法院和最高人民检察院联合颁布了《关于办理利用信息网络实施诽谤等刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》(以下简称《解释》),该《解释》已于9月10日正式生效。结合此前全国公安机关针对网络谣言展开的专项治理行动,可以说,在治理网络谣言的过程中,有关部门打出了一套有力的司法组合拳,也表明法律对网络谣言选择了零容忍的态度。

《解释》对于网络空间中诽谤罪的认定标准、哪些诽谤行为属于“严重危害社会秩序和国家利益”的公诉案件进行了详细规定,为严厉制裁网络空间中的诽谤犯罪提供了具有实际可操作性的法律依据。同时,《解释》对于利用信息网络实施的寻衅滋事罪、敲诈勒索罪、非法经营罪等严重扰乱网络空间秩序的犯罪行为,规定了不同于现实社会的犯罪认定标准,为产生于农业社会,成熟和完备于工业社会的传统刑法能够适用于信息社会或者说网络空间,进行了与时俱进的解释。

网络谣言与网络言论自由背道而驰

谣言不同于诽谤。虽然在广义上诽谤也是谣言,但是,谣言一般指不针对任何特定个人、单位或者群体的不实信息,而诽谤则是捏造针对特定个人、单位或者群体的不实信息。从这一点上讲,《解释》的打击半径基本上是“诽谤”行为。因此,对于这一《解释》,公众和网民总体上持肯定态度,同时也引发一些思考。

首先,网络是不是一个无法空间?有一种声音认为,网络是虚拟社会,现实空间中的法律不该过度进入网络空间。客观地讲,网络是由信息技术构建起来的世界,在网络空间中,技术不再像过去那样,迂回地通过影响“人与自然”的关系来塑造“人与人”的关系,而是通过延伸人的交往、活动空间直接改变人的社会属性。在人的行为进入网络空间之后,与之相适应,现实社会中的法律规则也应当随着人的活动空间的延伸而进入网络空间。网络空间不是现实空间的简单复制,但是,网络空间的行为仍然是现实空间中人类活动的延伸,差别在于表现形式不同。因此,网络空间作为人类活动的“第二空间”和“第二社会”,现实社会中的法律规则延伸到网络空间中不仅是必然的,也是必需的。首当其冲进入网络空间的传统法律,肯定是刑法,因为它制裁的是严重的失德失范行为——犯罪。

其次,从刑法理论上讲,网络空间是否属于“公共场所”,是引发理论质疑的关键。根据《公共场所管理条例》规定,公共场所是提供公众进行经济、文化、社交、娱乐、体育、医疗和满足部分生活需求所使用的一切公用场所及其设施的总称。根据传统的关于公共场所的定义,不难发现它仅仅限于实体的、现实的人类活动空间。但是,传统社会和网络社会同时并存的“双层社会”背景下,网络空间已经成为人类活动的“第二空间”,几乎和现实空间一样给人们提供了相同条件的活动场所。在网络空间中,人们足不出户便可以做几乎所有在现实空间想要做的事情,看病、学习、交友、娱乐、工作都可以在网络空间中实现。网络已不仅是社会信息交流和传播的媒介,更成为公众生活必不可少的一部分,极大地拓展了公众的认知范围和活动领域。因此,网络空间不仅实际地成为人类活动的“第二空间”,也成为供公众从事社会生活的重要场所。

但是,并不是说所有的网络空间场所都属于公共场所,网络空间同样存在私人空间和私人场所。对于网络公共场所的界定,应把握传统公共场所的本质特征,即可以满足公众部分生活需求的开放性公用场所,对于封闭、半封闭的网络空间,就难以定性为公共场所。例如,微博具有开放性,实际上是一个自媒体,相当于传统的报纸等媒体;而微信就是朋友之间的即时通信工具,即使是具有公开转发功能的“朋友圈”,也只是限于私人之间的非开放圈子,不能认定为网络公共场所。因此,将网络空间中的行为视为在“公共场所”的行为,并非没有理由。但是,需要加以明确的是,是造成网络空间中的“秩序混乱”还是造成现实社会的“公共秩序混乱”才构成寻衅滋事罪?什么情况下才能评价为造成了网络空间中公共秩序的混乱?这些问题的明确,不仅是以寻衅滋事罪制裁网络造谣传谣行为要明确的基本标准,更是司法实践中应当谨慎对待的核心问题。不解决这一问题,就无法消除公众的质疑。

网络空间没有边界,整个世界几乎成为一个触手可摸的地球村。但是,与很多国家的情况不同,在中国,网络谣言成为网络空间的一道独特“风景”,“谣翻中国”不仅成为一些网络“意见领袖”或者“网络推手”的追求目标,而且成为一种产业链化的营利手段,谣言的编造、传播甚至成为一个特定行业。近两三年,一切似乎都不再可信,公众怀疑一切信息的真实性成为一种常态心理。网络谣言的数量、类型和指向对象日益增多,对社会利益、民族利益和国家利益的冲击、实际危害日益扩大,某些谣言已经不再是事实和真相之间的差异,它可能彻底改变甚至摧毁一个民族、一个社会固有的道德观念、价值取向和行为规范,也可能冲击、危害具体的、现实的国家民族利益和社会秩序,甚至产生了可能引发或者形成现实空间中的群体性事件乃至社会动荡的危险,而且在辟谣之后仍然余害难消。因此,加大对网络谣言的法律制裁,对于危害严重的网络谣言追究刑事责任的必要性逐渐形成了共识。

此次“两高”颁布司法解释能够引起如此大的社会反响,除了刑事责任具有其他法律后果无法企及的社会道德评价内涵外,还在于司法是社会正义的后一道防线,公众对司法机关寄托了严厉打击网络谣言犯罪,从根本上净化网络传播环境的殷切期望。网络让草根阶层获得了发声的空间,极大地扩大了公民的言论表达空间和自由,网络在反腐败、公民监督政府、凝聚社会基本共识、弘扬社会正能量上的作用也是有目共睹的。但是,网络谣言与网络言论自由的理念根本上是背道而驰的,就像热带雨林中的绞杀树反噬宿主的营养一样,如果任由网络谣言泛滥,迟早会令网络丧失创新活力。 (于志刚 作者系中国政法大学刑事司法学院教授、网络立法专家)  

标签: 网络空间 空间
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