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XP停止服务 国产替代可分两步走
时间:2014-03-31 17:55:22
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:中国电子报

前不久,中国工程院院士倪光南指出Windows XP停止服务是重大信息安全事件,建议中国XP用户不要升级到“视窗8”系统。但是,如果不升级系统,中国XP用户将会面临很大的安全漏洞风险。对此,倪光南在接受《中国电子报》记者采访时表示,根本解决办法是用国产智能终端操作系统替换XP,但是鉴于当前市场缺少国产系统,需要加紧研发,在此过渡期间,可对中国XP用户使用可信加固技术,使他们的电脑能正常工作,再争取在一两年内,用国产系统进行替代。

  国产替代可分两步走

  第一步是“视窗 8”不应列入政府采购目录,第二步是替代微软接管XP的支持服务,为下一步实行国产化替代创造条件。

  《中国电子报》:当前我国国产操作系统发展历程很不顺利,您认为原因在哪里?有没有突破的机会?

  倪光南:几十年来对发展中国智能终端操作系统没有形成国家意志,缺乏顶层设计。例如过去这些年,实际上只有二三家百人规模的小公司做桌面操作系统;在移动操作系统方面,在知识产权风险没有深入评估的情况下,就支持多家企业基于安卓系统搞各自的“定制”系统,形成低水平重复,做出来也不一定能用。而且,产业界对开源软件缺乏认识,往往搞拿来主义,存在知识产权风险。由于这种种原因,我国的智能终端操作系统一直没有发展起来。正是在这种情势下,我们发现了一个机遇,这就是微软将在2014年4月停止对XP的支持服务,迫使用户升级到“视窗8”。现在中国有2亿台XP电脑,据统计,85%用户都不想升级到“视窗8”,所以这些电脑的系统就有可能以国产操作系统进行替代,这可当作发展中国智能终端操作系统的突破点。

  《中国电子报》:微软停止对XP支持服务在即,而国产操作系统应用又不太理想。在这种情况下,中国用户就会陷入两难境地。您认为应该如何平衡国产替代和维护用户利益两者的关系呢?

  倪光南:可以分为两步走。第一步是“视窗8”不应列入政府采购目录,政府和重要行业不升级到“视窗8”。经验表明,2006年我国有关部门未将Vista列入政府采购目录,结果Vista在中国的市场份额接近零。现在,由于“视窗8”与Vista是同样的架构,属于微软能牢牢掌控而用户不可控的系统,遵照当年对待Vista的先例,“视窗8”也未被列入政府采购目录,这一步已经实现了。第二步是替代微软接管XP的支持服务,使这2亿台电脑在微软停止支持服务后,仍能正常工作,为下一步实行国产化替代创造条件。

  3月7日微软集合其产业链下游的一些伙伴举行新闻发布会,发起“Windows XP用户支持计划”(“扎篱笆”),明确地号召中国用户升级到“新一代操作系统——视窗8”。针对微软拉住中国XP用户的“扎篱笆”计划,日前我国CEC、CETC、中国软件行业协会等“政产学研用”各界发表声明,组建“中国智能终端操作系统产业联盟”并将推出“联盟安全云服务”,保障中国XP用户的正常工作,这样,围绕着2亿XP用户展开了一场争夺战。

  由于微软将不再提供支持,因此保障XP用户的安全不能主要依靠打补丁,而应依靠创新的可信加固技术。当前市场已经有一些自主的可信加固技术在一些部门中应用并取得良好效果。现在要进一步整合各方资源,做好应对大规模用户的准备,为下一步用国产操作系统替代XP创造有利条件。

  寄希望于开源软件和社区

  国产系统应“站在巨人肩上创新”,善于运用开源软件。依靠科技计划支持操作系统的做法在实践中并不成功,应进行机制创新。

  《中国电子报》:对于国产化的计划,有没有明确的时间表?

  倪光南:回顾历史,苹果、谷歌的系统在移动领域成为主导系统,都只花了短短的几年时间,因此,国产化替代的时间窗口不会太长,如果我们不能在较短时间里实现这一替代,那么智能终端操作系统领域也可能会像PC领域一样,在以后的许多年里被包括微软在内的三家外国系统牢牢控制住。

  《中国电子报》:国产操作系统将选择哪种技术路线?现在有没有一些工作基础?

  倪光南:智能终端操作系统需要有一个庞大的生态系统(或生态环境)的支持,所以它的技术路线涉及面也很广,这里仅就国产操作系统与开源软件的关系作一些说明。

  鉴于操作系统是基础的软件,极其庞大和复杂,不能采用完全封闭的方式,每行代码都自己来写。现存的智能终端操作系统或多或少继承了Unix、Linux和Windows这三家,它们中无论哪一家都至少有20年的历史。所以国产系统应“站在巨人肩上创新”,善于运用开源软件。但是,需要处理好自主创新和开源软件的关系。

  有人把开源软件看成是“免费”软件,随意运用,有知识产权风险。实际上开源软件有其游戏规则,有的可能仅仅要求应用者作出声明,有的可能要求应用者也公开源代码……,我们都需要尊重其相应的“许可证”和知识产权。对于有商业公司支持的开源软件,我们还要取得相应的商业授权,这样除了规避知识产权风险外,还可以得到其他好处,例如可允许对关键模块不按常规开源许可证处理,不予开源。

  有人把开源软件看成是“外国”软件,这是误解。应当看到,开源软件发展模式很适合云计算,现在世界上(包括中国)的因特网企业所提供的“云服务”,绝大多数都基于开源软件平台。虽然目前中国人在开源社区(开源软件的网上协作组织)的话语权很小,但这是暂时的,随着我们投入的增加,中国人也可主导某些开源社区。

  有人把运用开源软件和自主创新对立起来,认为运用开源软件会形成“依赖”,这不符合软件业发展趋势。开源软件至今有约30年的历史,它能在很小的投入下(相比专有软件)越来越壮大,说明这种软件发展模式的生命力,应当像苹果和谷歌那样善于应用开源软件。当然,运用开源软件不等于开发出来的软件都要开源。

  开源社区是开源软件发展基础。过去我国对开源社区重视不够,我国软件人员参与开源社区不多,近年来已有改进,例如国防科技大学研发人员在与Ubuntu开源社区的融合上取得了良好的进展,今后要加大对开源社区的投入,争取中国人在社区内的更大的话语权。

  《中国电子报》:为了推进国产替代计划,我们成立了中国智能终端操作系统产业联盟,那么,联盟将开展哪些工作?发挥什么作用?

  倪光南:长期以来只依靠科技计划支持操作系统的做法,在实践中并不成功。当今世界大项目的进行多采用“团队制”,应进行机制创新。所以,我们应该吸取“北斗”和“TD”等产业联盟的经验,发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,通过组建“中国智能终端操作系统产业联盟”(“联盟”),在中央网络安全和信息化领导小组的领导下,发扬“两弹一星”和载人航天精神,加大自主创新力度,整合中国各界资源,协同创新,大力推进国产智能终端操作系统的研发和推广应用,真正解决我国在这一关键核心技术上长期受制于人的问题。

  “联盟”可吸收民间资本,设立便于支持开源软件和开源软件工作者的基金会,“联盟”的运作可与国家科技项目互相支持、互相补充,更好地推动国产操作系统的产业化。

(原标题:倪光南:XP停止服务 国产替代可分两步走)

标签: 国产系统 知识产权 源代码
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