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当前位置: 首页 > 新闻 > 业界动态
从芦山到鲁甸 专家点评谣言应对进步
时间:2014-08-15 10:05:16
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:人民日报

近年来,一遇到地震等自然灾害或其他突发性事件,总有谣言流传,给社会带来负面效应。2013年4月20日,四川省雅安市芦山县发生7.0级地震后,本报记者曾整理出13大谣言,这次云南鲁甸地震发生后,记者观察发现,谣言的土壤在逐渐消解,辟谣已形成合力、渐成自觉。

据记者查阅,本次鲁甸地震中,“寻找职中学生刘冻雪速回鲁甸医院看重伤妈妈”“微信朋友圈为灾区同胞祈福”“北京市政府号召市民捐款遭前所未有抵制和唾骂”等几则谣言的关注度较高。但相比芦山地震等前几次重大突发灾难事件,这次谣言数量、刻意造谣的情况都有明显减少,传播面也不大,且谣言内容很多为往年重复谣言。

谣言数量减少

应对谣言“软战场”,主流媒体社交平台合力

“近年来,每次自然灾害尤其是地震发生时,我们都要面对两个‘战场’,抗震救灾‘主战场’和应对谣言‘软战场’,在新媒体时代‘软战场’很值得关注。”中国社会科学院新闻与传播研究所副研究员刘瑞生认为,此次鲁甸地震,谣言无论在传播广度还是影响上,都逊于芦山地震期间的13大谣言,网络传播空间基本清朗有序,其中重要原因是我们高度重视网络谣言这个“第二战场”,谣言应对水平和机制都有了很大进步提高。

从芦山到鲁甸 专家点评谣言应对进步-艺源视网

“本次鲁甸地震中,有关部门对谣言的处理可用及时、权威来形容。”人民网舆情监测室舆情分析师齐思慧认为,本次鲁甸地震中,多数谣言在传播初期即被监测到,重大谣言均在1日内被权威部门辟谣。比如,8月4日“刘冻雪”这则谣言在QQ、微博、微信等社交平台被转发开来,当天便遭到大量网友的举报,政务机构微博、主流媒体微博以及微博活跃群体纷纷站出来辟谣,并以推送“利用地震救灾诈骗五种形式”等信息提醒网友提高警惕,及时遏制谣言,避免网络谣言泛滥形成多重“次生灾害”。

北京师范大学文学院新闻与传播研究所副教授王颖吉对“刘冻雪”事件也印象深刻。他注意到,“公安部打黑除四害”“民防小卫士”“重庆网警”“郑州日报”等博主都发布了辟谣信息,“各个博主的影响面不同,共同辟谣使辟谣信息的覆盖范围扩大了。”王颖吉说。

齐思慧分析说,本次鲁甸地震,互联网上主要存在“寻人”“捐款”“救援”“祈福”等几类谣言,谣言种类较前面几次重大灾害有所减少。据王颖吉观察,鲁甸地震中的谣言主要集中在以救灾为名目的财务诈骗等,与政府行为关联较少,对政府救灾工作影响很小。

“与过去相比,这次地震后信息公开情况也有进步。”中山大学传播与设计学院副院长张志安说,首先是政务微博真正发挥出了作用,有关部门通过微博进行滚动播报和点评,即时公布灾区情况和救灾进展,已成为普遍现象。其次,经过芦山地震以来多次突发事件的“锻炼”,主流媒体和市场化媒体的微博相互响应,已成为地震灾情报道的重要平台。“体现为主流媒体更多报道救灾进展和舆论引导,市场化媒体更多审视灾难本身和传播人性化的故事,形成呼应。”张志安说。

齐思慧认为,值得一提的是,这次“大V”群体少了“灾难消费”,多了“伸手援助”。一些“大V”不仅在自媒体舆论场中重申灾难报道的伦理规范,而且与官微形成良性互动,帮助救援。

打谣行动见效

公众网络素养提升,理性网友参与辨谣围剿

“除了媒体和有关方面针对鲁甸地震中的谣言预防得力、辟谣及时外,公众也在微博、微信上积极转发辟谣信息,这体现了公众辨谣素质的提高和社会责任感的增强。”清华大学新闻与传播学院教授王君超说。

“谣言一出头即受到网民和媒体的‘围剿’,这是当前一道亮丽的景观。”刘瑞生认为,谣言已成人人喊打的“过街鼠”,这和多次突发事件中公众不断提高免疫力、警惕性有关。“浑水煮面”事件就体现了大家对谣言的警惕。张志安也认为,公众的网络素养在逐步提升,不少网友对网上爆料信息不再偏听偏信,而是养成了验证核实的习惯。

“这种警惕性的提高与近年来的网络空间治理,尤其是去年以来的网络谣言治理专项行动密不可分。”齐思慧说。南京大学新闻传播学院教授方延明也认为,政府不断加大信息公开,加上最近几年对造谣传谣的有力打击,打谣治谣已收到明显效果。

“除了应对网络的素养有所提升,大家对自然灾害的知识更丰富,认识也更客观。”中南财经政法大学教授乔新生认为,汶川大地震之后,我们关于自然灾害的报道已非常充分,这在无形之中压缩了谣言产生和传播的空间。

防谣再进一步

完善机制、持续宣传,营造人人抵制谣言的积极氛围

此次鲁甸地震舆情的一个特点,是此前出现过的谣言和造谣手段再次出现,对此,专家们怎么看?

王颖吉认为,谣言本身就是具有重复性的,许多谣言,比如“日本向中国输入一批核污染海鲜”“小龙虾重金属超标”等等,都一直屡禁不绝。这些实际上是公众对某些问题的重视或信息不透明造成的猜测怀疑。要想解决这种谣言重复传播问题,直接地便是要保障信息公开,更为根本的则是解决公众关心的问题,打消公众心中的疑虑。

刘瑞生认为,在传播渠道极为多样、人人皆是传播者的微传播新媒体时代,我们要营造人人抵制谣言的积极氛围。

张志安表示,谣言的类型很多,不仅会在突发事件发生时产生,平时关于食品安全等方面的季节性谣言也一轮接一轮,因此防谣之路不能松懈。

今后如何应对谣言?“一是政府和新闻媒体要利用好平台,二是持续宣传,让公众进一步提高鉴别能力。”张志安表示,应进一步利用好和完善好现有的谣言鉴定和澄清机制,比如政府拥有自媒体平台,可第一时间发出权威声音,比过去只召开发布会再请传统媒体跟进报道的做法有效率。此外,新闻媒体组织的辟谣联盟,在传统媒体和网络媒体间形成联动,将公信力和时效性做结合,大力扼杀谣言生存的空间。

王颖吉表示,具体来说,政府要做好信息公开工作、完善日常舆情监测与分析机制、建立完善问责制度与法律教育以及追究承接机制,传媒机构要坚守社会责任、提高业务素质和媒介公信力,公民要加强媒介素养和法律道德意识、加强心理建设和公民意识等,非政府组织则要配合政府应急处理工作、利用自身优势积极参与应急处置、向公众普及科学知识以提高公众对社会风险正确认识的能力。(本报记者 马 龙 吕毅品 人民网记者 贾 玥

(李远哲参与采写)

标签: 微信朋友圈 传播新媒体时代
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