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}
				
当前位置: 首页 > 售后 > 艺源智库
【小程序】小程序•小故事(1)——分包加载
时间:2018-07-07 08:47:18
文章发布:
原创作者:未知
来源:互联网

编者的话:小程序自开放以来,不断推出新的能力,我们希望将这些能力背后的故事分享给大家。第一期先同大家分享小程序「分包加载」的故事。

小程序•小故事(1)——分包加载【艺源科技】

背景

2017.01.09 小程序上线时,我们限制了代码包不能超过1MB 大小,限制大小是出于对小程序启动速度的考虑,我们希望用户在使用任何一款小程序时,都能获得一种“秒开”体验。然而,1MB 的大小也限制了小程序功能的扩展,小程序业务的发展可能需要更大的体积。

那么,能否有一种方案,在增加小程序包大小的同时,也能保持不错的启动速度呢?

为了解决这个矛盾点,我们推出了「分包加载」这个技术方案。

分包加载的介绍

大部分小程序都会由某几个功能组成,通常这几个功能之间是独立的,但会依赖一些公共的逻辑,并且这些功能通常会对应某几个独立的页面。那么小程序代码的打包,大可不必一定要打成一个,可以按照功能的划分,拆分成几个分包,当需要用到某个功能时,才加载这个功能对应的分包。

对于用户来说,小程序加载流程变成了:

1.启动时,先下载小程序主包,显示主包内的页面;

2.如果用户进入了某个分包的页面,再下载这个对应分包,下载完毕后,显示分包的页面。

采用分包加载,对开发者而言,能使小程序有更大的代码体积,承载更多的功能与服务;而对用户而言,可以更快地打开小程序,同时在不影响启动速度前提下使用更多功能。

分包的划分

在配置前首先需要开发者规划下各个分包需要容纳的内容,我们建议开发者按照功能划分的的原则,将同一个功能下的页面和逻辑放置于同一个目录下,对于一些跨功能之间公共逻辑,将其放置于主包下,这样可以确保在分包引用这部分功能时,这部分的逻辑一定存在。

在分包划分时,应该注意以下事项:

1.避免分包与分包之间引用上的耦合。因为分包的加载是由用户操作触发的,并不能确保某分包加载时,另外一个分包就一定存在,这个时候可能会导致 JS 逻辑异常的情况,例如报「"xxx.js" is not defined」这样的错误;

2.一些公共用到的自定义组件,需要放在主包内。

分包的配置

当理清了分包的划分后,就可以进行分包的配置了,这一步并不复杂。

假设支持分包的小程序目录结构如下:

1.jpg

开发者通过在 app.jsonsubPackages字段声明项目分包结构:

2.jpg

分包加载的低版本兼容问题

微信 6.6.0 版本开始支持分包加载,而对于低于这个版本的客户端,我们做了兼容处理,开发者不需要对老版本微信客户端做兼容。
对于老版本的客户端,编译后台会将所有的分包打包成一个整包,老版本的客户端依然按照整包的方式进行加载。

所以在老版本的微信客户端下,是依然采取整包加载的方式加载的,建议开发者尽量控制代码包的大小。

目前小程序分包大小的限制:

  • 整个小程序所有分包大小不超过 4M

  • 单个分包/主包大小不能超过 2M


随着时间推移,老版本覆盖率降低,我们会考虑进一步扩大代码包的大小。

分包加载的详细使用方法、示例项目文档上已有介绍,可查看接口文档:分包加载

如果其他问题,欢迎在评论区留言。

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如果大家有想了解的小程序相关能力的故事,欢迎在评论区留言,我们后续会考虑将这些能力背后的故事分期分享给大家。

标签: 小程序开发 微信小程序开发 小程序定制开发
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