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直播带货迎来井喷式发展 成为电商行业的潮流
时间:2020-06-19 18:14:27
文章发布:李阳
原创作者:未知
来源:互联网

近年来,直播带货迎来井喷式发展,成为电商行业的潮流。与此同时,直播带货暴露出来的产品质量、虚假宣传等问题也接踵而至。

前不久,主播罗永浩在直播间推荐了“花点时间520玫瑰礼盒”,随后就有网友在微博反映礼盒的质量问题,称收到的花束存在枯萎、腐烂现象。5月20日起,罗永浩转发相关投诉博文表示道歉,并说明了补偿措施。此前,网红主播薇娅、李佳琦等也曾因产品质量问题被指直播“翻车”。

直播带货的产品质量如何保证?消费者权益如何保障?《法制日报》记者进行了采访。

产品质量良莠不齐

行业内部缺乏监管

事实上,直播带货的产品质量、售后服务等问题早已不是新鲜事。

去年,主播李佳琦在一场近400万人观看的直播中卖出的阳澄湖大闸蟹,被曝出并非产自阳澄湖,遭到网友频频投诉;在另一场直播中主播在展示“不粘锅”效果时,“不粘锅”却粘锅了。

今年5月,主播薇娅在直播中销售来自西双版纳的农产品和水果,却迎来“吐槽”不断。不少网友收到货后发现,很多水果还未成熟,此外还存在以次充好、缺斤短两等问题。

根据中国消费者协会4月1日发布的《直播电商购物消费者满意度在线调查报告》显示,越来越多的消费者能够接纳直播电商,但电商直播购物存在的多项问题也不容忽视。调查显示,有37.3%的受访消费者在直播购物中遇到过消费问题。例如,消费者容易受到直播氛围影响而冲动购物;由于信息不对称,消费者被夸大宣传或虚假信息误导,购买到假冒商品和“三无”产品等。从调查数据来看,“担心商品质量没有保障”和“担心售后问题”是消费者两大主要顾虑。

对此,中国传媒大学文化产业管理学院法律系主任郑宁认为,目前企业违法成本低、消费者维权成本高、市场监管执法难等问题没有得到根本解决,直播带货监管的相关标准和制度滞后,这些都是导致行业乱象的原因。

北京市盈科律师事务所高级合伙人韩英伟告诉《法制日报》记者,人们盲目跟风和攀比的消费心理和贪图便宜的低价心理推动了直播带货的火爆,但行业内部缺乏监管、行业门槛低,导致存在质量问题的产品通过网络流入市场,大肆售卖。

6月5日,国家网信办等8部门表示,将启动为期半年的网络直播行业专项整治和规范管理行动,其中包括对网络直播带货管理规则的探索实施。

多方主体须担责任

涉嫌违反多部法律

当直播带货涉及的产品质量出现问题,责任该如何认定?郑宁告诉《法制日报》记者,根据具体情形,如果未尽合理的注意义务,主播可能会承担侵权责任。

郑宁说,消费者权益保护法规定,社会团体或者其他组织、个人在关系消费者生命健康商品或者服务的虚假广告或者其他虚假宣传中向消费者推荐商品或者服务,造成消费者损害的,应当与提供该商品或者服务的经营者承担连带责任。

广告法规定,广告代言人在广告中对商品、服务作推荐、证明,应当依据事实,符合本法和有关法律、行政法规规定,并不得为其未使用过的商品或者未接受过的服务作推荐、证明。发布虚假广告,欺骗、误导消费者,使购买商品或者接受服务的消费者的合法权益受到损害的,由广告主依法承担民事责任。广告经营者、广告发布者不能提供广告主的真实名称、地址和有效联系方式的,消费者可以要求广告经营者、广告发布者先行赔偿。关系消费者生命健康的商品或者服务的虚假广告,造成消费者损害的,其广告经营者、广告发布者、广告代言人应当与广告主承担连带责任。”郑宁说。

在韩英伟看来,除了主播之外,还有多方涉事主体需要承担责任。

韩英伟说:“网络直播平台或许面临行政处罚。电子商务法规定,对平台内经营者侵害消费者合法权益行为未采取必要措施,或者对平台内经营者未尽到资质资格审核义务,或者对消费者未尽到安全保障义务的,由市场监督管理部门责令限期改正,可以处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,责令停业整顿,并处五十万元以上二百万元以下的罚款。同时,生产者、经营者也有相应责任。侵权责任法规定,因产品存在缺陷造成他人损害的,生产者应当承担侵权责任。因产品存在缺陷造成损害的,被侵权人可以向产品的生产者请求赔偿,也可以向产品的销售者请求赔偿。产品缺陷由生产者造成的,销售者赔偿后,有权向生产者追偿。”

此外,消费者权益保护法规定,经营者发现其提供的商品或者服务存在缺陷,有危及人身、财产安全的,应当立即向有关行政部门报告和告知消费者,并采取停止销售、警示、召回、无害化处理、销毁、停止生产或者服务等措施。采取召回措施的,经营者应当承担消费者因商品被召回支出的必要费用。经营者提供商品或者服务,造成消费者财产损害的,应当依照法律规定或者当事人约定承担修理、重作、更换、退货、补足商品数量、退还货款和服务费用或者赔偿损失等民事责任。经营者提供商品或者服务有欺诈行为的,应当按照消费者的要求增加赔偿其受到的损失,增加赔偿的金额为消费者购买商品的价款或者接受服务的费用的三倍;增加赔偿的金额不足五百元的,为五百元。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。

强化直播带货监管

建立社会监督体系

针对直播带货中质量良莠不齐的现象,该如何规范?

韩英伟认为,首先直播带货平台应提高准入门槛,加强产品质量审核,健全合规内控制度;其次,政府部门要加大普法力度,提高人民群众的法律意识,做到知法懂法守法,养成良好的行为消费习惯;最后,市场监督管理部门要强化产品质量监督管理工作,坚决抵制不合格产品流入市场,必要的时候开展多部门联合执法,不给劣质产品“可乘之机”,加大惩罚力度,使违法者不敢犯法。

郑宁建议,相关监管部门应进一步厘清直播带货行业中相关平台、经营者与主播的义务、责任的界定和划分,加大对平台、经营者、主播的审核、监管力度,并加强对直播带货的关键环节——主播的管理,通过系统性的培训引导和规范化的考评机制,加强主播的职业素养和规范意识,通过内容监管、飞行检查等手段,做好对主播的管理和约束,提升直播带货的准入门槛。

同时,平台要严格按照相关法律法规及政策要求,完善自身监管措施和处罚方式,积极自治,加强从招募入驻、商品抽检、营销推广、商品评价、违规管理、售后保障、纠纷判责等直播带货交易全流程的生态治理及审核把关,严格查处各类人气造假、评论造假等造假行为,以及各类诱导交易、虚假交易、规避安全监管的私下交易行为等,并依法配合有关部门的监督检查、调查取证,以保障消费者合法权益。

“鉴于直播带货不同于传统的网络销售模式,其涉及到的主体及法律关系更为复杂多样,甚至存在身份交叉、不同法律关系重叠的情况,建议各监管部门在执法过程中,既要明确监管职能划分,又要建立协同治理机制,共同织牢监管网络体系,打造安全放心的网络消费环境。”郑宁说。

郑宁还建议,可以建立统一的直播带货违法举报及维权平台,将直播带货置于全民有效监管之下,对于随意夸大其辞、欺诈和误导消费者的直播带货行为应纳入社会诚信考核体系,对在直播带货虚假宣传的主播除进行严厉经济处罚之外,还应将违法情节严重、劣迹信息较多的主播拉入黑名单,实行市场禁入,提高直播带货违法成本,增强监管震慑力。

如果消费者在看直播时购买了推荐的商品,但是商品质量有问题该如何维权呢?

“如果消费者在直播中购买到了低质量产品,应及时保存购货链接、支付凭证等固定维权证据。产品质量法规定,消费者有权就产品质量问题,向产品的生产者、销售者查询;向市场监督管理部门及有关部门申诉,接受申诉的部门应当负责处理。同时还规定,保护消费者权益的社会组织可以就消费者反映的产品质量问题建议有关部门负责处理,支持消费者对因产品质量造成的损害向人民法院起诉。”韩英伟说。

郑宁说,如果消费者权益受到损害,一般可以采取投诉、和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等方式维护自己的合法权益。消费者权益保护法规定,经营者提供的商品或者服务不符合质量要求的,消费者可以依照国家规定、当事人约定退货,或者要求经营者履行更换、修理等义务。没有国家规定和当事人约定的,消费者可以自收到商品之日起七日内退货;七日后符合法定解除合同条件的,消费者可以及时退货,不符合法定解除合同条件的,可以要求经营者履行更换、修理等义务。依照前款规定进行退货、更换、修理的,经营者应当承担运输等必要费用。

据了解,近日中国商业联合会已下达计划,中商联媒体购物专业委员会将牵头起草《视频直播购物运营和服务基本规范》和《网络购物诚信服务体系评价指南》两项标准,预计于7月份正式发布执行。该标准将对行业术语和定义、“带货”产品的商品质量、直播场景软硬件要求、网络主播的行为规范、行业企业的经营管理、内容发布平台合规性、行业诚信体系建设、监管部门的监督管理等作出规范要求,力求对行业起到监督作用,保障消费者合法利益。


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